Enviremental problems in Kazakhstan. The ecological problems of kazakhstan aral sea реферат

The Aral Sea problem in Central Asia

The Aral Sea is situated in Central Asia, between the Southern part of Kazakhstan and Northern Uzbekistan. Up until the third quarter of the 20th century it was the world’s fourth largest saline lake, and contained 10grams of salt per liter. The two rivers that feed it are the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, respectively reaching the Sea through the South and the North. And that is the biggest ecologic problem not only for Uzbekistan but for all Asian countries. And it also impacts on population living around Aral Sea.

Nowadays such an environmental and ecological problems exist in other areas such as Black Sea, Azov Sea, Caribbean Sea, Northern Sea seashores and Aral Sea, Ladoga, Onega, Chad, Great Lakes.

The environmental and ecological problem which occurred in Central Asian and Uzbekistan is Aral Sea. During 1911–1960 years Aral Seas was flown into about 52 km3 in every year. And its salinity level was 9.5–10 percent, water level was 52 metres, depth of water was 16 meters. The water level in the Aral Sea started drastically decreasing from the 1960s onward. In normal conditions, the Aral Sea gets approximately one fifth of its water supply through rainfall, while the rest is delivered to it by the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. Evaporation causes the water level to decrease by the same amount that flows into the Sea, making it sustainable as long as inflow is equal to evaporation on average. Therefore the diversion of rivers is at the origin of the imbalance that caused the sea to slowly desiccate over the last 4 decades. And since building new canals and big dams amount of water flown into Aral Sea by Amudarya and Syrdarya caused water decreasing. Level of salinity rose from approximately 10g/l to often more than 100g/l in the remaining Southern Aral. Salinity of the rivers varies with place and time, as well as through the seasons. When going through the desert, rivers often collect some salt compounds residues in the ground that result in higher salinity, but may well be lowered again after going through irrigated lands. Dams also affect salinity, notably by reducing its variability with the seasons. Smaller lakes within the Aral Sea that have stopped being fed by river flows tend to have higher salinity due to evaporation, causing some or all fishes that either survived or had been reintroduced in the 1990s to die. Even re-watering those lakes does not compensate for the increased salinity over the years. In 1998, water level was down by 20m, with a total volume of 210 km3 compared to 1,060km3 in 1960. Area is getting small year by year.

Nowadays 2 main tasks are being adjusted by Government of Uzbekistan. And it means there are 2 solutions for the country: first is to keep the amount of water and second is to improve ecological environment around Aral Sea.

To keep the amount of the Sea with water level 33 meters the Sea must be flown 20 km3 water by Amudarya and Syrdarya in every year.

The main way of improving ecological environment consists of providing population who live around the Sea with clear water, sending water to dried lakes, areas regularly, fortifying soil with plants and widening grassland, increasing meliorated case of the area.

But in the past time The Aral Sea was considered as one of the main inside seas and was used for fishing, transportation and for other needs. In ancient time water level contained 1.5–2.10, was up to natural features of climate, and amount of water was 100–150 km3, water level area was 400 km3. In dry years amount of water flown into Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas decreased. So, at present time water level of the Sea lowered 16.8 m comparing with 1961.

The desiccation of the Aral Sea greatly increased the number of dust and salt storms in the area. Satellite images have revealed that there are up to ten major dust storms occurring annually in the region, most of them occurring between the months of April and July (Glantz 1999). While before, the pressure from the water surface dampened the strength of the northerly and north-easterly winds, the loss of the sea meant that it's protective action from the wind was significantly reduced. The receding sea left behind large amount of salt, and ground water evaporation further increased the amount of salt from the exposed sea bed. The strong north-easterly winds now pick up the sand, salt, and dust, creating strong dust storms. The salt content in the dust made up about 30– 40 % of the volume in the summer, and was as high as 90 % in the winter (Hydro meteorological Center of Uzbekistan). The storms are often between 150 and 300 km wide. The dust was distributed in areas far beyond the region — the dust from the Aral Sea region was found as far as 500km away from the original source (Micklin 2007). Some of the salt reached the intensively irrigated and cultivated soils, which even ruined the soil far away from the Aral Sea region. It was estimated that the average amount of salt removed from the entire dried seabed was about 43 million metric tons between 1960 and 1984 (Glantz 1999).

The situation in South Island is much worse than other sides. And area of this island includes Red and Black Sands and Amu darya. Drying position of Island hasn’t been observed in the world experiences yet. That is why there is some difficulty to mark this case for the world as well. Because of salinity of ground farm products downed 30 % in Uzbekistan, 33 % in Kazakhstan, 20 % in Kyrgyz republic.

Prior to 1960 the Aral Sea's biodiversity was considered low. It supported no more than 24 species of fish, over 200 species of free-living macroinvertibrates, and 180 land animal species. With the lowering of water and the rise of salinity and toxicity none of the fish species survived. Less than 30 macroinvertibrate species survived and of the land animals that were reliant of the Aral Sea a few dozen remain. There are additional factors that have affected the diminishing native species of the Aral Sea region. With the receding shores once water locked breeding grounds of many fish species became vulnerable to land preditors. Also, with the decreasing volume of animal life in the region more salient species were introduced in an attempt to preserve the 44,000 tonne of fish per annum that the commercial fisheries of the region had procured prior to the 1960's. The newly introduced fish proved brutal competitors for the already vulnerable native species. Nowadays, even other animals not only fishes in this territory are getting few. Nearly there is not an alive creature in this area. These all impact on population health as well. This caused some diseases. By learning demographic growth of population we can get a lot of differences comparing today with the past in this area. Changes in population are important to understand the Aral Sea crisis for various reasons that we will explore. Between 1950 and 1988, the population of the Aral Sea basin grew dramatically — from 13.8 to 33.2 million people, comprising increases from 8.1 to 19.9 million in Uzbekistan, 1.0 to 2.2 million in Kirghizstan, 2.0 to 5.1 million in Tadzhikistan, 1.5 to 3.5 million in Turkmenistan, and 1.2 to 2.4 million in Kazakhstan (all within the sea-basin limits). In 1990, the population of the Aral Sea basin numbered 34 million. Mean annual rates of population increase in the late 1980s amounted to 2.85 % in Uzbekistan, 2.60 % in Kirghizstan, 3.2 % in Tadzhikistan, 2.65 % in Turkmenistan, and 1.06 % in southern Kazakhstan. Today, after two decades of intense demographic growth, the situation has clearly changed, for we see that the mean of the population growth rate in the Aral Basin has diminished.

Today the Aral Sea is one of the main problem in in Asia. Thus a lot of ideas were given for saving the Aral Sea. Some scientists admit that it is impossible to save the Sea and whole sea will be dried afterwards. But others admit that it is possible to save it. And 70 km3 water is needed for saving the Sea.

To sum up, drying of the Aral Sea is very big problem, and that’s to say it became national trouble for Uzbekistan. This problem began existing long years ago. And it is still on. Today it became one of the huge ecological trouble. About 35 million people who live around the sea are under influence of this problem. Nowadays many scientists have been working on experiments for solving this problem.


1.      “Ecology, biosphere and nature protecting ”. Ergashev T.A; Tashkent. 2005.

2.      “Liberal Bases of ecology”.Tashkent. 2004

3.      “Respecting nature is all universe problem”. Salomova H.;Tashkent. 2004

4.      Hydro meteorological Center of Uzbekistan

5.      “Sand of lower part of Amudarya”.Tursunov L.S; Abdullayev.,Tashkent. 1990


Enviremental problems in Kazakhstan — реферат

Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

West Kazakhstan Agrarian –Technical University by Zhangir khan.  

Chair of foreign languages.    



Prepared by: Kuanov M.A.


Checked by: Zhumagalieva N.K.       

Uralsk 2010. 

The environment of Kazakhstan has been badly damaged by human activity. Most of the water in Kazakhstan is polluted by industrial effluents, pesticide and fertilizer residue, and, in some places, radioactivity. The most visible damage has been to the Aral Sea, which as recently as the 1970s was larger than any of the Great Lakes of North America save Lake Superior. The sea began to shrink rapidly when sharply increased irrigation and other demands on the only significant tributaries, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya (the latter reaching the Aral from neighboring Uzbekistan), all but eliminated inflow. By 1993 the Aral Sea had lost an estimated 60 % of its volume, in the process breaking into three unconnected segments. Increasing salinity and reduced habitat have killed the Aral Sea's fish, hence destroying its once-active fishing industry, and the receding shoreline has left the former port of Aral'sk more than seventy kilometers from the water's edge. The depletion of this large body of water has increased temperature variations in the region, which in turn have had an impact on agriculture. A much greater agricultural impact, however, has come from the salt- and pesticide-laden soil that the wind is known to carry as far away as the Himalaya Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Deposition of this heavily saline soil on nearby fields effectively sterilizes them. Evidence suggests that salts, pesticides, and residues of chemical fertilizers are also adversely affecting human life around the former Aral Sea; infant mortality in the region approaches 10 % compared with the 1991 national rate of 2.7 %.

By contrast, the water level of the Caspian Sea has been rising steadily since 1978 for reasons that scientists have not been able to explain fully. At the northern end of the sea, more than 10,000 square kilometers of land in Atyrau Province have been flooded. Experts estimate that if current rates of increase persist, the coastal city of Atyrau, eighty-eight other population centers, and many of Kazakhstan's Caspian oil fields could be submerged by 2020.

Wind erosion has also had an impact in the northern and central parts of the republic because of the introduction of wide-scale dry land wheat farming. In the 1950s and 1960s, much soil was lost when vast tracts of Kazakhstan's prairies were plowed under as part of Khrushchev's Virgin Lands agricultural project. By the mid-1990s, an estimated 60 % of the republic's pastureland was in various stages of desertification.

Industrial pollution is a bigger concern in Kazakhstan's manufacturing cities, where aging factories pump huge quantities of unfiltered pollutants into the air and groundwater. The former capital, Almaty, is particularly threatened, in part because of the post independence boom in private automobile ownership.

The gravest environmental threat to Kazakhstan comes from radiation, especially in the Semey (Semipalatinsk) region of the northeast, where the Soviet Union tested almost 500 nuclear weapons, 116 of them above ground. Often, such tests were conducted without evacuating or even alerting the local population. Although nuclear testing was halted in 1990, radiation poisoning, birth defects, severe anemia, and leukemia are very common in the area.

With some conspicuous exceptions, lip service has been the primary official response to Kazakhstan's ecological problems. In February 1989, opposition to Soviet nuclear testing and its ill effects in Kazakhstan led to the creation of one of the republic's largest and most influential grass-roots movements, Nevada-Semipalatinsk, which was founded by Kazak poet and public figure Olzhas Suleymenov. In the first week of the movement's existence, Nevada-Semipalatinsk gathered more than 2 million signatures from Kazakhstanis of all ethnic groups on a petition to Gorbachev demanding the end of nuclear testing in Kazakhstan. After a year of demonstrations and protests, the test ban took effect in 1990. It remained in force in 1996, although in 1995 at least one unexploded device reportedly was still in position near Semey.

Once its major ecological objective was achieved, Nevada-Semipalatinsk made various attempts to broaden into a more general political movement; it has not pursued a broad ecological or "green" agenda. A very small green party, Tabigat, made common cause with the political opposition in the parliament of 1994.

The government has established a Ministry of Ecology and Bioresources, with a separate administration for radioecology, but the ministry's programs are underfunded and given low priority. In 1994 only 23 % of budgeted funds were actually allotted to environmental programs. Many official meetings and conferences are held (more than 300 have been devoted to the problem of the Aral Sea alone), but few practical programs have gone into operation. In 1994 the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency agreed to give Kazakhstan US$62 million to help the country overcome ecological problems.


Реферат Aral Sea

Aral Sea—What Was and What Is

Since the very beginning of its existence, the human being has been developing. It has never stopped, and it never will. During the last couple of centuries it has been developing very aggressively, and it has reached tremendous achievements in all fields. Unfortunately mankind has achieved tremendous success in polluting its environment also. Nowadays, nature is missing many of its inhabitants: – those who are supposed to be under the protection of humans as young brothers and sisters. Pollution was the reason for their extinction. Finally, the humanity started paying more attention to what surrounds it. It started thinking about the future, its future generations, and the inheritance to these generations. People have started asking themselves more often questions like, “What will we have left to other children after us?” Currently, humanity has plenty of global environmental problems that it has to take care of now. Tomorrow will be too late. Some of these global environmental problems are global warming, deforestation, freshwater contamination, destruction of ozone layer of the earth, pollution of space orbit of the earth by parts of used equipment. Desiccation of the Aral Sea is one of the items on the list.

The Aral Sea, which is also considered to be a lake or Inland Sea in Central Asia, is located in southwestern Kazakstan and northwestern Uzbekistan, near the Caspian Sea. The Aral has no outlet. The Aral Sea is still listed as the fourth largest lake in the world. But it has been shrinking for decades, and the statistics might change. In time the Aral Sea may not the fourth largest lake in the world anymore.

Nowadays, two major problems have risen before the governments of Uzbekistan and Kazakstan; the desiccation and as a result of this threat of the complete disappearance of the sea, and the danger of the broad extension of anthrax bacteria that was stored by the Soviet Army Vozrozdenia Island.

In comparison with the size of the sea in the 1960’s, the Sea has declined in size by seventy-six percent. The initial reason for the Aral’s decline is the fact that Soviet planners diverted water from Aral’s two big feeding rivers (Amu Darya and Syr Darya) into cotton fields in the territory of Uzbekistan. Because of this irrigation, the sea is now seventy miles away from its former bank (in some places even more). Ninety percent of the Syr Daya’s water is diverted into canals and reservoirs. Millions of people in Central Asia rely on the rivers for a livelihood. Uzbekistan, for instance, generates twenty-eight percent of its hard currency from cotton irrigated with river water (The Aral Sea, http:///visearth.ucsd.edu/VisE_Int/aralsea/).

Planning the irrigation system, the Soviet planners were only after high rates of cotton harvests. Unwise use of water has led to the current state of the Aral Sea. The salt content of the Sea’s waters increased by about threefold, adversely affecting plant and animal life and causing the fishing industry to decline.

The disappearance of the sea as a part of the ecosystem is just one problem that is followed by hundreds of subsequent problems. One of them has already risen: The drying of the sea has left behind three million hectares of desiccated seabed, covered with accumulated salts which the wind carries away and deposits over thousands of square kilometers of arable land turning the land into dead ones. One can see white ridges amid the soil in the field. Salty dust from the dried out land blows in squalls through the area, causing discomfort and respiratory problems. Wind brings more than a hundred tons of salty dust per square mile on the region every year. As a result of this, trees do not bear fruit any more.

The Aral Sea’s desiccation has an influence on everything that is around it. The climate in the region has changed significantly; the winters are even colder, summers are even hotter.

The sea was not only the water supply for the population, but it was the source of their income. A large part of the population was involved in fishing and resort industries. Now, that the Sea is far away, these businesses are no longer available, and that leads to deterioration of the financial situation of the people in the area.

“In city of Muynak, the three hundred-vessel fleet once employed a thousand fishermen. It is now a collection of rusting hulls half-buried amid the dunes on the edge of town. Yet the sixty-year-old canning factory still clatters, all steam and stench, although its seven hundred workers handle fish brought by lorry from the lakes around Tashkent, one thousand miles away” (Reeves, The Sea Sickness).

The sea has turned from a rich fishing ground to a prairie of poison dust. Desiccation has a great deal of influence on the population’s health; the change in environment has significantly increased rates of birth defects, infant mortality, cancers, malnutrition, respiratory diseases, and the anemia suffered by almost all women of child-bearing age. Malnutrition has risen sharply; fish is no longer a part of the people’s daily diet. Another side effect imposed on the population is a dramatically increased rate of tuberculosis in the area.

One of the causes of health deterioration is that over three decades the water could not or barely could make it to the Aral Sea. The Aral’s water contains a lot of pesticides. The pesticides sank to the bottom of the lake. As the lake dried up, this layer of pesticide became exposed to the wind, which blows it away on the other lands.

The partial solution for the problem is to build a dam to keep water from flowing into the larger, southern portion. Plans call for the structure’s base to be 150 yards wide. If money is found for the construction, the water level of the northern sea will rise to the same level it was in 1960’s. As a result of the construction, salination of the sea will decrease. This fact might contribute to restoration of fishing and resort industries.

For the population of this region, the dam is a rare ray of hope. If the dam holds on the small sea, a microclimate will be restored there. The health of people will improve and it will be good for the economy.

Calculations by the Kazak Academy of Science in Almaty, the country’s main commercial city, suggest the entire sea might disappear by 2010 without the dam. Currently the northern Sea is one-sixth as large as the southern portion. If the surface area is reduced, less water will evaporate. The full damage caused cannot be repaired, but it can be stopped from going any further.

The second threat to the Aral Sea and its inhabitants is anthrax bacteria stored 1988 by the Soviet Army. The Army was trying to get rid of its germ weapons and stored the bacteria on one of the Aral’s islands. Soldiers dug large pits and poured a mixture of anthrax bacteria and bleach. The bleach was supposed to kill the bacteria, but it did not. Even with the passage of time, the bacteria stay alive.

Now, the Sea is drying out and this island can become a part of land. This fact carries the threat that anthrax bacteria can be exposed to atmosphere one day, and it will become a very serious danger to both countries.

At this time, both governments in cooperation with the United States are undertaking actions in order to prevent the extension of the bacteria.

Over the two last centuries many of Earth’s inhabitants became extinct as a result of environmental pollution. It is time to stop it; otherwise the next extinct inhabitant might turn out to be humanity itself.

Works cited

R.J. Bennet and R.J.Chorley. “Environmental Systems.” Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978

Sulvan J.Kaplan, Ph.D. Evelyn Kivy – Rosenberg, Ph.D. “Ecology and The Quality of Life.” Illinois: Publisher spring field, 1973

Andrew, Goudie. “The Human Impact.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1981

John, Passmore. “Man’s Responsobility for Nature.” New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974

Robin, Butlim A, and Neil Roberts. “Ecological Relations in Historical Times.” London: The Institute of British Geographers, 1985.

Sue Loyd-Robers. “Kazakhs Struggle to Refill their Lost Sea; Draining the Aral Destroyed a Way of Life.” Newspaper Publishing PLC, London: The Independent.

Phill, Reeves “The Sea Sickness.” Newspaper Publishing PLC, London: The Independent, March 6, 1999.

Graham, Hugles. “Scientists Fight to Save the Aral Sea: Desappearing Lake Waters Leave Disease, Poverty in Wake.” Southan Inc. The Ottawa Citizen, January 30, 1999.

Ganiel, Williams. “The Sinking Sea; Dike Splitting Kazakhstan’s Aral Dims Hopes for Its Salvation.” The Washington Post, November 1, 1998.

The Aral Sea. www.southampton.ac.uk/%7Eengenvir/water/aral.sea.html

The Aral Sea. http://visearth.ucsd.edu/VisE_Int/aralsea

Water Features and Water Issues: Aral Sea. http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/newsletter/html_mir/aral.html

Children’s Response to the Aral Sea Problem http://solar.rtd.utk.edu/partners/ccsi/announce/perzconf.htm


Ecological problems of Kazakhstan by Kristina Ventlyand on Prezi

Transcript of Ecological problems of Kazakhstan

On the threshold of the new millennium, humanity, summarizing the past and looking to the future, recognizing the achievements of civilization can not be aware of global environmental issues and to plan their activities with regard to the need to solve them and move towards sustainable development.Nuclear testsNuclear weapons tests conducted for 40 years at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, have caused irreparable damage to human health and the environment, caused an increase in overall morbidity and mortality. The entire territory of the Semipalatinsk test site and the surrounding area of Pavlodar, East Kazakhstan and Karaganda regions recognized as an ecological disaster zone.The ecological state of the air basinEcology of water resourcessoil EcologyThe total area of land in Kazakhstan is 2724.9 thousand. Km2. Although the territory and a large, but every year the quality of the land is poor. Due to improper development of the land is deteriorating soil fertility, they are subject to degradation, intensified desertification. According to recent data, 180 million. Ha or 60% of land in the country turned into a desert. Of the total area of Kazakhstan plains occupy 235 million hectares. 185 mln. Ha - pastures, 34 million. Ha - arable landOf these 235 million. 180 million ha. Ha unusable. Including undergone soil erosion 30 million hectares. Salinity - 60 million hectares. Radioactive and chemical pollution - 10 million. Ha.30 mln. Ha area of ​​the republic is occupied by different industries, transport facilities (roads, railways). In the northern regions of Kazakhstan due to the development of virgin lands, continuous rotation of crops were lost 20-25% of the fertile layer of humus.If in Western Kazakhstan oil and gas enterprises occupy only 100 ha, because of their exposure to man-made broken 2.5 million. Ha of soil, and the area of ​​overgrazing has reached 3 million. Ha. a military test ranges and Taisoigan Azgir given 1.4 million. ha. And in connection with the rise of the Caspian Sea is the assumption that in this region the water may be about 2.8 million. Ha.Environmental issues and cover different areas of Central Kazakhstan. It took sustained technogenic influence such processes as soil erosion, soil contamination with heavy metals, accumulation of radioactive elements in the soil, pollution of the remnants of space rockets (Betpakdala). In some regions of Kazakhstan, reduction in soil fertility, desertification is directly related to a sharp reduction in river flow, such as the Irtysh, Amudarya and Syrdarya, and, of course, the fall of the Aral Sea. In Southern Kazakhstan, for example, the consequences of environmental disasters in the Aral Sea can be considered that 2 million. Hectares of land had deteriorated, and Jean-Darya area on the brink of extinction is the unique black saxaul forest area of ​​3 thousand. Ha. Because of the sharp shallowing of the Aral Sea and the Syr Darya in the surrounding areas to them there is a rapid salinization, contamination of toxic chemicals and radionuclides.Pastures with succulent grasses turn into faded yellow steppes and arid deserts. The intention of the People's Republic of China to take an additional 10-15% of the water of the river or to kill this resource-rich region.The ecological status of sown land in Kazakhstan is assessed as very low. Such lands occupied in the Republic of 26,610.7 thousand. Ha. Observed in the recent years, global climate change on the planet degrade the quality of sown areas, a sharp decrease in soil fertility and salinization. To stop the degradation of the land, held annually throughout the necessary agro-technical measures: snow retention, application of organic and chemical fertilizers, and weed control apply pesticides and herbicides. For example, in 1996 in order to improve soil fertility in the field was made about 1 million. Tons of chemical and 33.2 million. Tons of organic fertilizer. It would seem that from year to year, these figures were to increase, but in 1998 they decreased by 16 million. M. According to the Institute of Soil Science of NAS RK, Kazakhstan soil fertility lost by 19-22%. This suggests that in the future will decrease land resources and their quality improves. Land pollution with heavy metals and radionuclides become widespread and involved almost the entire territory of the republicKazakhstan's rich natural resources are not always used efficiently. In the development of mining deposits, transport and processing of mined ore to the environment does more damage. Significant environmental damage caused military training grounds, development of virgin lands, large construction projects. For example, in the area of ​​Semipalatinsk nuclear test site a high level of radioactive contamination. Concentrated here for 154 industrial enterprises annually emit into the environment 294 thous. Tons of toxic chemicals. For example, in Semipalatinsk limit concentration of heavy metals exceeds the permissible limits: copper, lead, chromium - 100 times, 300 -in zinc, cobalt, nickel - 50 times.In 1968-1970 gg. Ustyurt Plateau produced underground nuclear explosions. These explosions have caused great damage to flora and fauna, water and soil resources of the region. In the republic there are large test sites "Taisoigan" in Atyrau region, "Tashkent-4" and "Baikonur" - near Lake Balkhash. These lands are infected with toxic heptyl and "remains" of missiles. It is proved that a poisonous substance - heptyl - causes various diseases of the lungs, respiratory tract, nervous system, kidneys and liver. In addition, the missile launches, spacecraft lead to loss of "acid rain" and have harmful effects on living organisms. For example, at the site "Taisoigan" was burned 30 thousand. Tons of fuel for the test of 24 thousand. Rockets. July 5 and October 24, 1999 an accident occurred spacecraft launchers "Proton", resulting in a large area of ​​the Karaganda region was infected with poisonous heptyl, which poses a danger to people's health situation. What will be the final consequences of these accidents is still unclear.Now revealed that 33.6 million. Hectares of Kazakh land out of order because of the negative impact of military ranges. At the same time in the country accumulated 16 billion. Tons of radioactive waste. These wastes in the Akmola region, 800 hectares, Zhambyl - 190, Zhezkazgan - 25, Kyzylorda - 3, South Kazakhstan - 2 hectares. As a result, many facts indicate that large areas of Kazakhstan become a zone of radiation and other environmental disastersEcological problems of KazakhstanIn Kazakhstan, the level of air pollution by harmful substances and various chemical compounds regularly monitors Research Institute at the "Kazgidromettsentre." Depending on the time of year the situation is clarified meteorological conditions and regularly report the results to the population in the journal "Environmental Bulletin". Judging by the air pollution index (API) in 1995-2005., The disadvantaged in this respect are the cities of Ridder, Zyryanovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Zhezkazgan, Balkhash, Karaganda, Pavlodar, Ekibastuz, Temirtau, Almaty. Of course, these figures are constantly changing, because the manufacturing plants of these cities operate unevenly. For example, if in 1995, is among the most polluted cities Zhezkazgan and Balkhash noted, in 1999-2005. their "overtaken" Ridder and Ust-Kamenogorsk. In these regions, a lot of toxic gases into the atmosphere ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy. In Almaty and Zyryanovsk no meteorological conditions for the neutralization and dispersion of pollutants in the air. Industrial enterprises of the republic are poorly equipped with modern equipment, warning harmful emissions into the atmosphere. Consequently, because of the outdated technology in the production of air in large quantities of solid, liquid, gaseous harmful substances to living organisms. These chemical compounds are highly toxic and dangerous. This sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and others.If you take, for example, the great rivers, the Irtysh River is polluted by sewage of Ust-Kamenogorsk lead-zinc plant, Ridder Lead Plant, Berezovsky mine Zyryanovsky plant. Therefore, the maximum allowable concentrations of lead, zinc, mercury and other heavy metals exceeded Irtysh water several times. They can not be considered satisfactory by the pool or water quality and Balkhash. They are contaminated with heavy metals, oil products, phenols. Association "Balkhashmys", "Balhashrybprom" rocket range Saryshagan and ore dressing Enterprise is thrown into the unique Lake Balkhash thousands of tons of waste. For many years the river water or heavily polluted due to the development of the huge irrigated areas (Akdalinski, Sharynsky, Shengildinsky) cast under crops of rice, and the use of large amounts of fertilizers and other toxic chemicals. The expansion of new irrigated lands caused a decline in the Ili River. Deteriorating environmental situation and the fact that this river transported oil, polluting the Kapchagay reservoir, river in China.Relatively clean water are considered to be in the basins of the Syr Darya, Shu, Talas, Karatal, Aksu, Lepsa, Tentek, Cox. Among them, the Syr Darya, Shu, Talas polluting chemicals as a result of the use of fertilizers in the fields and carrying out drainage works. Application of the cotton and rice fields a large number of pesticides affects the quality of water in rivers Arys and Keles.In recent years, the environmental situation of the republic degrade the active development of oil fields in the Caspian Sea and in the surrounding regions, as well as raising the level of the Caspian Sea. The sharp jump in the sea level brought down numerous boreholes, oil storage facilities. Water flooded the six oil fields, hundreds of villages, various equipment and many industrial enterprises. As a result, the sea water is even more dirty petroleum products, organic additives, heavy metals. In addition, the river Volga and the Ural Caspian water poured into a lot of toxic substances. For example, in the period 1995 - 2000 years. It was registered a sharp decline of various commercial fish, including valuable sturgeon. In this regard, a ban was placed on the capture of valuable sturgeon. A kind of sad bioindicator sharp decline in the quality of sea water began to mass mortality (20-30 ths.) Caspian seals and many species of birds in 1999. The wealth of the Caspian Sea is now attracting the attention of the world, foreign investors seeking to quickly learn the major oil fields in the region. It is doubtful that they will excite the Caspian water quality problems and compliance with internationally accepted environmental standards. In Atyrau, Mangistau regions due to the aging oil-producing and oil drilling equipment in large quantities is spilled on the ground and causing irreparable damage to the environment. The oil penetrates into the soil up to 10 m deep and pollutes underground water. In stores accumulated 200 thousand. Tonnes of waste oil and 40 thousand. Tonnes of various hydrocarbons.Environmental risks observed in the reservoirs of the Aktobe region. For example, the water of the river Elek contaminated with chromium and bromine emitted by enterprises for the production of amine. It is believed that much better environmental conditions in the lakes Kurgaldzhino, Nowruz, Markakol Alakol, Zaisan. Still, the water resources of the Central, Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan contaminated by industrial enterprises and military training grounds. Wastewater Karaganda Steel Plant and Production Association "Carbide" in Temirtau pollute the river. Nuru. Zhambyl phosphorus plant poisons river Talas and Asa fluorine and yellow phosphorite contained in its wastewater.In South Kazakhstan region the greatest pollution is observed in the rivers Badam and Sairam. On river Badam concentration in some places lead, zinc, phosphorus, mercury exceeds the maximum allowable is 50 times. These are consequences of discharges of chemical factories located on its banks. Biological contamination of water resources is most common in the region of the Aral Sea in western Kazakhstan.The government is making great efforts to improve, preserve and protect the quality of water resources of the country.

Full transcript


Смотрите также